Smectic order on arbitrary curved substrate can be described by a differential form of rank one (1-form), whose geometric meaning is the differential of the local phase field of the density modulation.http://www.cheapuggsuk.nu The exterior derivative of 1-form is the local dislocation density. Elastic deformations are described by superposition of exact differential forms. We use the formalism of differential forms to systematically classify and characterize all low energy smectic states on torus as well as on sphere. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UGG A two dimensional smectic order confined on either manifold exhibits many topologically distinct low energy states. Different states are not accessible from each other by local fluctuations.cheap mini uggs uk The total number of low energy states scales as the square root of the system area.cheapuggsuk We also address the… energetics of 2D smectic on a curved substrate and calculate the mean field phase diagram of smectic on a thin torus. Finally, we discuss the motion of disclinations for spherical smectics as low energy excitations, and illustrate the interesting connection between spherical smectic and the theory of elliptic functions.
To assess the effect of signal strength (SS) on reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement (measurement agreement) and its color-coded classification (classification agreement) by time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). http://www.cheapuggsuk.nuTwo consecutive Stratus OCT scans with the Fast RNFL protocol were performed in 658 participants. Intraclass correlations and the linear-weighted kappa coefficient were calculated as indicators of RNFL measurement and classification agreement in participants grouped according to the difference in SS between consecutive OCT scans (interscan SS difference).cheapuggsuk Groups with a larger interscan SS difference (= 2) had lower measurement agreement than those with a smaller interscan SS difference (0 or 1) for the temporal quadrant… and total average RNFL. Classification agreement for the nasal quadrant was lower in the groups with a larger interscan SS difference (= 2) than in those with a smaller interscan SS difference. The tendency of SS to affect classification and measurement agreement remained similar in the group with thinner RNFL thickness (≤85 μm), but not in the group with thicker RNFL.cheap bailey bow uggs uk Careful attention should be paid when comparing two or more OCT scans for RNFL thickness measurement or its color-coded classification as the agreement may be sensitive to SS differences.
We investigated transcriptional regulation of organic anion transporter OATP2B1 ( SLCO2B1 ) that is expressed in multiple tissues such as liver, small intestine, and others and compared it with that of liver-specific OATPs.cheap uggs uk sale The promoter activity was examined by luciferase assay. Specific bindings of transcription factors to the promoter region were examined by gel mobility shift assay using native and mutated nucleotides of the promoter region of OATP2B1. Deletion–mutation study of the promoter region of OATP2B1 showed that the −59 region that included the Sp1 binding site had basal promoter activity, whereas promoter activities of the further upper region were different between intestine-derived Caco-2 cells and liver-derived HepG2 cells. http://www.cheapuggsuk.nuThe association of Sp1 to the promoter region was… confirmed by gel shift assay and overexpression of Sp1 in cultured cells. Although the promoter of OATP2B1 has a putative HNF1α binding site, overexpression of HNF1α did not induce the expression of OATP2B1. Sp1, a transcription factor, was required for constitutive expression of OATP2B1 in liver and small intestine, whereas HNF1α, which is involved in the expression of liver-specific OATPs, did not seem to play a role in OATP2B1 expression.cheapuggsuk Accordingly, it was suggested that the tissue expression profile of OATP2B1 was different from that of other liver-specific OATPs.